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An enzyme that digests plastic could boost recycling – A MILLION plastic bottles are sold every minute. Many are not recycled and of those that are, only a small fraction become bottles again – Enzyme digests plastic recycling

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An enzyme that digests plastic could boost recycling

Auf Wiedersehen, PET

Enzyme digests plastic recycling A MILLION plastic bottles are sold every minute. Many are not recycled and of those that are, only a small fraction become bottles again. That is, in part, because recycling polyethylene terephthalate (PET), the polymer used to make such bottles, back into material robust enough to hold, say, a fizzy drink, is hard. What would be helpful is a way to break down PET into the chemicals that made it in the first place. These could then be used to make new high-grade PET.

This week John McGeehan of the University of Portsmouth, in Britain, and his colleagues report details of a bacterial enzyme called “PETase” that can do just that. Furthermore, they have engineered a version of this enzyme that can digest plastic faster than the natural variety. Their work is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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PETase is secreted by a plastic-munching bacterium called Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6. This bug was discovered in 2016 at a PET-bottle recycling plant in Sakai, Japan. The researchers behind its discovery showed that the enzyme degrades PET into mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid (MHET). A second enzyme then breaks MHET down further, into terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. The bacterium then uses these chemicals as food sources. The discoverers of PETase also suggested that it may have evolved from bacterial enzymes used to break down cutin, a waxy polymer that coats leaves. That is, in itself, remarkable—for PET has been used widely only since the 1970s, meaning that the enzyme must have evolved to do its job within the past 50 years.

I. sakaiensis digests PET far too slowly, however, to be of much use for industrial recycling of the plastic. To make it so requires understanding how the enzymes do their work. This is what Dr McGeehan and his colleagues set out to do. As MHET is far easier to break down by standard chemical means than PET, they focused on PETase.

They compared the DNA sequence of the PETase gene to that of cutinases from thousands of species of bacteria, looking for systematic differences. They then created new versions of PETase, each with one or more of its amino-acid building blocks changed to resemble those of ancestral cutinases.

As many of the differences between PETase and cutinases were, presumably, what allowed the PETase to do its job, they expected these new enzymes to digest the plastic less efficiently. To their surprise, however, one of the engineered enzymes (with two amino acids mutated to be more cutinase-like) was able to digest PET about 20% faster than the natural one. That is a modest increase, but one that came about by accident rather than design. This, Dr McGeehan argues, shows there is plenty of scope for further improvement.

The team determined the structures of their enzymes by protein crystallography, a technique that takes detailed pictures of a molecule by bombarding crystals of it with X-rays (in this case, at the Diamond Light Source, a machine in Oxfordshire that produces particularly strong X-rays for such purposes). They then used computer modelling to look at how a molecule of PET might dock with the enzyme’s active site—the region where the chemical reaction that breaks down the plastic actually occurs. The more-efficient enzyme they engineered appears to hold the plastic molecule more snugly in the active site than the naturally occurring version.

Interesting though all this is, there is still much to do before PETase can become a useful enzyme. At the moment, a litre of a solution of even the improved enzyme would break down just a few milligrams of plastic per day. Its plastic-digesting ability must therefore be improved by a hundredfold or more to be commercially useful.

This the team hopes to do, in part, by using clues from the enzyme’s structure. Further improvements could come by designing the enzyme to work at temperatures above 70ºC, when PET becomes rubbery, and thus more easily digestible. Bacteria that live in hot springs, and that have cutinases that function at such temperatures, might be pressed into service here. The gene for the enzyme would also have to be transplanted into bacteria that can be grown easily at industrial scales. If these hurdles can be surmounted, though, PETase might make a dent in the scourge of plastic waste.

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Magnitude of the planetary crisis – The global production of plastics has increased from 1.5 million tonnes in 1950 to 299 million tonnes in 2013 – Planetary crisis environment

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Magnitude of the planetary crisis

DECCAN CHRONICLE. | DR MAHUA SAHA

Plastic not only takes years to decompose in our environment but rarely does it fully disappear.

Planetary crisis environment

 No one knows how much debris makes up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre is too large for scientists to trawl.

From the ice-covered Arctic to the tropical waters of the Pacific, all of Earth’s oceans share one thing in common: plastic pollution.  Discarded plastic bags, cups, and bottles make their way into the sea. Today, it seems that no part of the ocean is safe from plastic trash. The global production of plastics has increased from 1.5 million tonnes in 1950 to 299 million tonnes in 2013, representing a four per cent increase over 2012. Their use has increased 20-fold in the past half-century and is expected to double again in the next 20 years. Today nearly everyone everywhere every day comes into contact with plastics – especially plastic packaging. For those of us working in the sustainable materials management space, we’ve understood for a long time that plastic pollution in the world’s oceans has been catastrophic. A part of plastics waste reaches the ocean through different pathways, and pollutes the marine environment due to waste mismanagement and coastal and marine activities. Plastic that is dumped in rivers and then ends up in the world’s oceans is one of the major sources of marine pollution, whereas Asian waterways are the major carriers.

According to researchers at The Ocean Cleanup, a Dutch foundation, rivers carry an estimated 1.15-2.41 million tonnes of plastic into the sea every year, an amount that needs between 48,000 to over 100,000 dump trucks to carry it away.
The Yangtze, the world’s third-longest river, “is the largest contributing catchment” dumping some 330,000 tonnes of plastic into the East China Sea, which is followed by the Ganges River. In a study published in Science journal, around 192 countries whose coastlines are bordered by the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, Mediterranean and Black Seas, produced a total of 2.5 billion metric tons of solid waste. Of that, 275 million metric tonnes was plastic, and an estimated 8 million metric tonnes  of mismanaged plastic waste entered the ocean in 2010.

Plastics in the marine environment are of increasing concern because of their persistence and effects on oceans, wildlife, and especially on humans. Several broad classes of plastics are used in packaging: Polyethyelene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A recent significant finding is that minute fragments of plastic debris, termed microplastics, occur in oceans worldwide. Microplastics, a form of manmade litter, have been accumulating in the oceans at least for the last four decades. Microplastics pollution is evidently a major concern when talking about environmental protection in light of human development.  Microplastics are particles less than five mm in size that deteriorate from larger plastic pieces that have entered the oceans. Microplastics come from a variety of sources, including from larger plastic debris that degrades into smaller and smaller pieces.

In addition, microbeads, a type of microplastic, are very tiny pieces of manufactured polyethylene plastic that are added as exfoliants to health and beauty products, such as some cleansers and toothpastes. These tiny particles easily pass through water filtration systems and end up in the ocean, posing a potential threat to aquatic life. According to a 2012 survey, 4,360 tonnes  of microbeads were used throughout all European Union countries in that year alone. In the light of growing apprehension regarding ocean pollution, and considering the broad range of products from which this pollution originates, it is no surprise that tiny plastic particles can accumulate to such quantities as 93-236 thousand tonnes  floating in the oceans as predicted by a recent study in Environmental Research Letters. It is concerning, however, that this amount is 37 times greater than previous estimates because it speaks to just how much more abundant these personal care products are becoming, and how much of an impact they can realistically have on marine wildlife.

Owing to their small size, microplastics are considered bio-available to organisms throughout the food-web. Their composition and relatively large surface area make them prone to adhering to waterborne organic pollutants (e.g. POPs) and to leaching of plasticisers that are considered toxic. POPs, the hazardous human-made chemical that occurs universally in sea water at very low concentrations, are picked up by microplastics via partitioning and the hydrophobicity of  POPs facilitate their concentration in the microplastic litter. Further, plastics contain additives and chemicals that are added to improve the desirable properties of the plastic product, for example, antioxidants, light-stabilisers, slip additives, etc which may leach out under conditions of use and accumulate in the environment and gradually end up intruding into the food web.
Ingestion of microplastics may therefore be introducing toxins to the base of the food chain, from where there are potential possibilities of bioaccumulation. Microplastics can be consumed by a diverse array of marine organisms, across trophic levels, including zooplankton, bivalves, barnacles, fish, turtles and birds. Over 220 different species have been found to consume microplastic debris in nature.

In our preliminary study, microplastics were found in the beaches of Mumbai, Goa and Chennai in a moderate level. Research in this arena has taken a huge leap recently; but unfortunately in the Indian scene, only few reports are available. It is expected that Indian coastal regions are also affected by microplastics. Hence National Institute of Oceanography  has initiated joint collaborative study with Japan and Netherlands to bring out more information about plastic pollution status in Indian coastal zone. Recently, the Union Ministry of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change revealed that 15,000 tonnes of plastic waste is generated every day, out of which 9,000 tonnes is collected and processed, but 6,000 tonnes of plastic waste is not being collected.
It is high time we understand that plastic, including biodegradable plastic, not only takes years to decompose in our environment but rarely fully disappears. No matter how inconvenient the truth, it is important that as citizens we take action and change our consumption patterns in favour of alternatives to plastics so that we can minimise our exposure to harmful additives and also help our environment.

So the best thing we can do to protect our waterways is try to keep as much plastic as possible out of the waste stream in the first place.  For reducing the generation of more plastics waste we have to take the 4 Rs pledge- Refuse, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.  1) Refuse disposable plastic whenever and wherever possible.  2) Reduce our plastic footprint. 3) Reuse durable, non-toxic straws, utensils, to-go containers, bottles, bags, and other everyday items. And finally 4) Recycle what we can’t refuse, reduce or reuse.

(The author is Senior Scientist at Council for Scientific and Industrial Research- National Institute of Oceanography, Goa)

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Plastic eating system could help solve recycling crisis – As nations around the globe search for new ways of handling waste following China’s decision to stop processing the world’s rubbish, a South Australian man is searching for investors to help build a commercial system that converts waste plastic into biogas – Plastic eating system recycling crisis

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Plastic eating system could help solve recycling crisis

As nations around the globe search for new ways of handling waste following China’s decision to stop processing the world’s rubbish, a South Australian man is searching for investors to help build a commercial system that converts waste plastic into biogas.
Plastic eating system recycling crisis
Picture: Bo Eide

Scientist David Thompson will this month file an application for patent protection for his POET System, which uses anaerobic digestion technology to turn a range of plastics, including polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and expanded polystyrene, into methane. The process also produces inert, organic by-products that can be used as garden fertiliser and mulch.

Thompson is looking for an investor to help it build a demonstration plant capable of processing, initially, 5000 tonnes of plastic a year. He said there had been significant global interest in his invention but potential buyers generally wanted to see a working demonstration plant rather than just certified test results before committing. “Everyone wants to be the first to be the second in line” Thompson, the POET Systems CEO said. “Because we’ve done such an enormous amount of validation around controlling the degradation of plastics in a safe and environmental way, it’s led us to this position of being able to get the POET System up to a point where we now know what we need to put in and how to operate it. “The frustration has been in finding the person or company prepared to ‘take a punt’ and allow us to move forward.”

The startup company is based in the South Australian capital Adelaide and is looking for an investment of about AU$2.5 million to help it build the 100-tonne a week plant. However, Thompson said this capital investment could be significantly reduced if the investor already had access to appropriate land and certain infrastructure. Thompson said the plant could be running six months after funding was secured. He said the system was ideally suited to operate alongside other anaerobic digestion systems such as a wastewater treatment plant. “We’ve already identified all the machinery we need – we’ve done the floor plans,” Thompson said. “Once we understand what the final and approved budget is going to be we’ll know what we can build. “The nice thing about the POET system is that it’s a really ‘soft’ system because, although there are some mechanical processes at the beginning to make plastics attractive to the bacteria that digest it, it’s the bacteria that do all the work.”

The extension of China’s ‘Operation Green Fence’ policy came into effect in January, banning the importation of 24 categories of contaminated solid waste including paper, plastics, textiles and some metals. This caused prices for recyclable materials to crash and left waste management companies in the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia with vast amounts of unsaleable waste. Before the ban, China imported almost 30 million tonnes of waste paper and 7 million tonnes of “recyclable” plastic a year – including about 30 per cent of Australia’s waste paper and plastic. This is on top of the estimated 1 million tonnes of contaminated plastic that is deemed unfit for recycling and sent to landfill in Australia each year. A Senate Inquiry into the waste and recycling industry in Australia is due to report back on June 13. The issue is also expected to be raised at a meeting of Australian state and federal environment ministers on April 27.

“What was recently deemed as being recyclable is no longer recyclable – there is no value in waste plastic because there is no viable waste processing capability in Australia and I’d like to think the POET system can meet a significant segment of that,” Thompson said. “This opens up doors for us, we have an awful lot of plastic that is going to landfill in Australia and that’s being replicated all around the world. “Once we get our demonstration plant built, order books from clients will open.”

POET Systems was a 2017 semi-finalist in the Australian Technologies Competition, which assesses, mentors and promotes companies providing a uniquely Australian take on the future and is open to technologies that have global potential in a range of industries. Thompson has since been contacted by potential customers in the United Kingdom and Canada and is in talks with interested investors from Singapore and Australia. He said further research in recent months had shown promise with PET plastics. The company has also successfully tested a system that can process plastics, food waste and cardboard simultaneously, which Thompson said would be perfectly suited to the fast food industry. “We’re looking at different strains of bacteria but all the testing we’ve done has been with garden variety bacteria because we wanted to demonstrate that existing industry with existing anaerobic digestion systems can use the POET System in conjunction with that and get favourable results,” he said. “Water treatment companies already have the infrastructure in place so they only need to plug in the POET System.” “People are also very interested in creating more biogas from waste and because of the high calorific value of plastics – it’s twice as much as food waste – the expectations are that the biogas yields will be twice as much.”

POET is an acronym for Polymer – Organic – Energy – Treatment. Thompson said he has had the technology academically reviewed to prove that the science stacks up and the system is scalable. He said the modelling on a 5000-tonne-a-year system in Australia based on waste disposal gate fees and electricity feed-in tariffs, showed a payback period of less than three years. “We’ve got conformity to international standards and nobody has ever done that. “And I’ve been able to repeat that and take it to the next level to doing a single phase process that treats cardboard, plastic and food waste all through in one hit.” “We know what we need to do, we’re confident, we’ve done all the independent testing and all that can be put on the table with investors – real data, real results.”

The Lead South Australia

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EPA resources for managing and reducing waste – The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a guide to reducing waste for commercial building facility managers – EPA Environmental Protection Agency resources waste

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EPA resources for managing and reducing waste

Scott E. Rupp

EPA Environmental Protection Agency resources waste

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a guide to reducing waste for commercial building facility managers. For those in the profession, the guide might be old news, but for rookies and veterans alike it serves as a good educational tool for those who manage office buildings, schools, stores, hotels, restaurants and other commercial and institutional buildings.

These facilities generate significant amounts of waste that must be managed efficiently, economically and environmentally. The benefits of proper waste management are enormous, and much greater than simply getting the trash out.

Benefits of addressing waste

Until recently, many in facility management might not have paid much attention to the waste their organizations produce. Many organizational leaders are content to simply establish a system for removing trash; however, proactive organizations are seeing the benefits of establishing a waste reduction program.

Waste reduction programs can save an organization money through increased recycling efforts that cut their disposal costs and improve bottom lines. Additionally, understanding the amount and types of wastes produced better positions the company to find ways to reduce hauling costs and negotiate for waste and recycling services that actually fit the organization’s needs.

From a PR perspective, managing waste, water and energy more efficiently are core components of sustainability and helps improve the organization’s “green” standing, which can boost corporate image, attract quality tenants to properties managed and positively engage employees. Finally, a quality waste reduction program can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Tracking waste

According to the EPA, the first step is tracking the amount of waste your organization generates, for as the old adage goes, “you can’t manage what you don’t measure.” Therefore, tracking waste and recycling provides the key foundation for a successful waste reduction program.

One recommendation is the Energy Star Portfolio Manager, a free online tool for tracking waste, energy and water data over time. The EPA recommends using it to benchmark the performance of one building or a whole portfolio of buildings, all in a secure online environment. The portfolio manager “offers a consistent set of metrics for assessing your waste management activities.”

The EPA also recommends partnering with WasteWise, the Food Recovery Challenge or the Federal Green Challenge, and joining the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Data Management System hosted in Re-TRAC Connect. Through the SMM system, partners can track and report to the EPA their annual waste management and green purchasing activities, set annual goals and apply for recognition, which can be used to boost corporate image in the media and with the public.

To meet your recycling program goals, you may wish to add to your team to better manage the program. Or you might leverage an existing team better to meet these goals. The EPA suggests that facility managers consider adding more of a focus on waste reduction in the organization’s existing green team. This also may mean bringing in additional team members with a focus on waste and recycling.

These teams should work toward gaining community and leadership support to drive the initiatives to attain long-term waste reduction goals. Additionally, promote the program to other employees and educate them on ways to participate; offering employee incentives to reduce wastes; monitoring progress; reporting the status of planned activities to management; and reporting the organization’s waste reduction efforts to all employees.

Additionally, set program goals to measure success. Examine tracking data to establish a benchmark and inform your goal setting. Setting goals helps you prioritize activities for preventing waste and expanding recycling programs.

Then, track progress toward the goals using your benchmark. After reviewing the results of the waste assessment, the EPA suggests holding a team session to identify potential waste reduction activities, and listing the most promising options and evaluate them in terms of feasibility and how they align with your goals.

The EPA says recycling program questions can be directed to specific departments at the local government or by using the Earth911 sponsored recycling locator. The site provides information about regional recycling and what material end markets and processing facilities you can access, particularly if you have large amounts of materials; local programs and what materials are accepted by your municipal or county programs; and what services recycling contractors can offer for your building.

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Circular Economy Strategy for Packaging Adopted by Nestlé – Nestlé, the world’s largest food company, is to make all its packaging recyclable or reusable by 2025 – Circular Economy Strategy Packaging Nestlé

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Circular Economy Strategy for Packaging Adopted by Nestlé

 

Circular Economy Strategy Packaging Nestlé

Nestlé, the world’s largest food company, is to make all its packaging recyclable or reusable by 2025.

The Swiss multinational, whose products include chocolate, breakfast cereals, coffee, soft drinks and soup, intends that eventually none of its packaging will end up in landfill or as litter.

The company says it decided on these objectives largely because so much packaging now pollutes seas, oceans, waterways and other areas of the planet.

During the next seven years Nestlé aims to cut out non-recyclable plastics, encourage the use of more plastics that are recyclable, and ditch or change the complex mix of packaging materials.

In efforts to develop a circular economy Nestlé will help authorities and businesses to operate efficient collection, sorting and recycling schemes in countries where it manufactures and trades, and will combine with industry associations and supply chain partners to explore packaging methods that reduce plastic use, to facilitate recycling and to find new ways of phasing out plastic waste.

It will label its plastic packaging with recycling information telling consumers how to dispose of it responsibly and will promote a market for recycled plastics by continually increasing the amount used in its own packaging.

Nestlé chief executive Mark Schneider said: “Plastic waste is one of the biggest sustainability issues the world is facing today. Tackling it requires a collective approach.

“We are committed to finding improved solutions to reduce, reuse and recycle.”

In a related move, Aldi, the German-owned discount supermarket group with more than 10,000 stores in the UK, mainland Europe, Australia and China, is to use only recyclable, reusable or compostable packaging for its own-brand products by 2022.

As part of its green policy Aldi will scrap plastic carrier bags, charged at 5p each under government regulations, by the end of this year. Customers will be offered bags for life and 9p reusable bags instead.

UK research company Delineate has just issued poll results stating that 35 per cent of British consumers are seriously worried about progress in the battle against plastic waste.

Photo: Nestle´

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Strong Q1 earnings season expected for US chemical industry – analysts – US chemical groups are expected to average 10.6% year-on-year gains for earnings per share (EPS) in the first quarter, a strong expectation despite volume fears – USA chemical industry

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Strong Q1 earnings season expected for US chemical industry – analysts

Source:ICIS News

USA chemical industry HOUSTON (ICSI)–US chemical groups are expected to average 10.6% year-on-year gains for earnings per share (EPS) in the first quarter, a strong expectation despite volume fears, an analyst at Alembic Global Advisors said on Monday.

Higher product prices year on year combined with relatively flat ethane costs resulted in integrated product margin expansion year on year, said Hassan Ahmed, head of research at Alembic Global Advisors. He made his comments in a research note.

The group also noted that the market is full of talk regarding weak Q1 volumes from concerns about trade war-related global GDP compression. However, Alembic believe the data suggest otherwise.

“In terms of US volumes and demand, we find it constructive to focus on weekly chemical railcar-loading data as a coincident indicator,” Ahmed said.

Railcar loadings, which have been a good volume indicator historically, rose 2.6% year on year for the first quarter, Alembic noted.

Margins were analysed by Alembic at higher levels than 2017 averages, implying that the consensus may be creating an overly harsh margin compression scenario.

Alembic said it was “meaningfully” above first quarter and 2018 consensus estimates for the following companies:

– Braskem
– DowDuPont
– Celanese
– Huntsman
– LyondellBasell
– Methanex
– OCI Partners
– Trinseo
– Tronox
– Venator
– Westlake Chemical

“Additionally, Praxair, Huntsman, and DowDuPont appear to be closest to their short interest 52-week highs, while OCI Partners, Braskem and Tronox are furthest away,” Ahmed said.

It’s also possible that Praxair, Huntsman, and/or DowDuPont could have substantial outperformance, he added.

Despite what Alembic said was a still favourable US commodity chemical macro environment, the analyst group couldn’t completely ignore market sentiment on account of recent crude oil price declines, and further back, the sharp chemical market correction in the second half of 2011.

By David Haydon

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Escalating Middle East Tension Could Trigger Oil Prices To Hit $100 Per Barrel – Oil prices could soon soar to $100 per barrel amid growing fear about conflict in the Middle East, according to an oil analyst for CNBC – Oil Prices $100 Barrel

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Escalating Middle East Tension Could Trigger Oil Prices To Hit $100 Per Barrel

Oil prices could soon soar to $100 per barrel amid growing fear about conflict in the Middle East, according to an oil analyst for CNBC.

“I don’t think it is unfeasible to see triple-digit oil prices at some point this year if things really kick off in the Middle East.” says Anish Kapadia, founder and managing director of Akap Energy.

Kapadia recalls market participants being mocked for predicting six months ago that crude oil prices would hit between $60 and $70. With the worsening situation in the war-torn Middle East, oil prices are likely to propel to more than $100 per barrel later this year.

Last week, President Donald Trump’s comments about the possible military strike against Syria in response to a suspected chemical attack sent both benchmarks to post their most significant gain in more than eight months on Friday.

Brent crude traded at $72.26 around noon, a 0.3 percent rise, while WTI saw a 0.4 percent increase to $67.30. Both have raised about $5 since the start of the week.

Friday night, the U.S. did launch military strikes against Syria and that effect on oil prices may be seen this week.

Last Wednesday, the U.S. crude price reached its highest level in the past three years at the end of the trading session, amid worries about recent tensions that could disrupt oil supplies.

WTI prices for May delivery went up 25 cents and finished at $67.07 per barrel at New York Mercantile Exchange.

Brent prices for June shipment slipped 4 cents and closed at $72.02 per barrel at London-based ICE Futures Europe Exchange.

International Energy Agency prefers to wait and see

Despite elevated tensions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) declined to provide an estimate on whether or not the current situation in the Middle East would continue to escalate oil prices.

“It remains to be seen if recently elevated prices are sustained and if so what are the implications for the market demand and supply dynamics,” said the organization in a statement.

Additionally, efforts from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and its allied non-OPEC oil-producing nations contributed to the rise in oil prices starting in January 2017.

The output cuts are expected to last throughout this year, aiming to clear a global supply overhand and boost prices. This month, oil prices have risen to over $70 per barrel, giving a boost to the U.S. shale oil production.

Paris-based IEA called OPEC’s move to slash oil stocks a “mission accomplished.”

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-Is Russia Cheating On The OPEC Deal? – After three months of steady output, Russia’s crude oil production increased in March to 10.97 million bpd, the highest level since April 2017, as the top two Russian companies boosted their production – Russia Cheating OPEC Deal

-Oil price crosses $70 amid Iran deal tensions – Oil prices rose as investors saw increasing possibility that the US could withdraw from the historic Iran nuclear deal – Crude Oil price dollars 70 Iran tensions

-Is $70 oil the new normal? – The global economy is poised to cope well even if oil prices will remain at around $70 per barrel throughout 2018, energy experts said – Dollars 70 barrel crude oil shale oil

-Will oil prices remain strong for the rest of the year? – The oil inventory trajectory anchors oil prices in the short term, and the cost of bringing on the marginal barrel of US tight oil supply serves as the medium-term anchor for prices – The oil inventory trajectory anchors oil prices in the short term, and the cost of bringing on the marginal barrel of US tight oil supply serves as the medium-term anchor for prices – Crude Oil prices

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