Graphene high temperature superconductor

Discovery of ‘magic-angle graphene’ that behaves like a high-temperature superconductor is Physics World 2018 Breakthrough of the Year  Graphene high temperature superconductor

Hamish Johnston

The Physics World 2018 Breakthrough of the Year goes to Pablo Jarillo-Herrero of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US and colleagues for making the discovery that led to the development of “twistronics”, which is a new and very promising technique for adjusting the electronic properties of graphene by rotating adjacent layers of the material.Graphene high temperature superconductor

The technique was first used by the team to create “magic-angle graphene”, which behaves like a high-temperature superconductor.

Nine other achievements are highly commended in the Top Ten Breakthroughs of 2018 and cover topics ranging from the first full body PET/CT scan to a zero-carbon aeroplane propelled by a jet of ions. Graphene high temperature superconductor

Graphene high temperature superconductor
New twist: magic-angle bilayer graphene is the 2018 Breakthrough of the Year. (Courtesy: Pablo Jarillo-Herrero)

Graphene is a layer of carbon just one atom thick that has a honeycomb lattice. Bilayer graphene is a stack of two layers in which the two lattices are usually oriented in a specific way. Graphene high temperature superconductor

Twistronics began when Jarillo-Herrero and colleagues discovered Mott insulator behaviour in pristine bilayer graphene when the orientation of the two layers were twisted by a magic angle.

The team, a collection of researchers from MIT, Harvard University and the National Institute of Materials Science (NIMS) in Japan, then showed that by adding electrons to the twisted bilayer using an applied electric field, they could make it superconducting.

The development of twistronics has already triggered several important follow-up discoveries in graphene research.

Scientists at Columbia University devised a way to finely tune the angle between adjacent layers of 2D materials and thereby control the electronic properties. This highlights the potential for twistronics as an alternative paradigm for device engineering.

Further theoretical investigations have provided insights into the electronic transitions in bilayer and multilayer graphene systems.Graphene high temperature superconductor

Theorists have highlighted the potential for unconventional superconductivity, including topological superconductivity and the existence of topological “Majorana states” at the edge of the material.

These states could be particularly useful for creating quantum bits in quantum computers because they are more robust to environmental perturbations than many of the alternatives.

More recently, adding a twist between layers of 2D materials has also helped prevent Umklapp scattering, which degrades carrier mobility at high temperatures.

The Physics World Top 10 Breakthroughs of 2018 are awarded to research reported in 2018 in physicworld.com. The winners are chosen by Physics World editors and the criteria for judging included:

  • Significant advance in knowledge or understanding
  • Importance of work for scientific progress and/or development of real-world applications
  • Of general interest to Physics World readers

Now for our nine highly commended breakthroughs, which are listed below in no particular order.

Multifunctional carbon fibres enable “massless” energy storage

To Leif Asp at Chalmers University of Technology and his collaborators in Sweden, Italy and France for demonstrating the potential for effectively massless energy storage using multifunctional carbon fibres.Graphene high temperature superconductor

Despite progress in energy storage technology, batteries still make up a significant part of the weight for devices such as laptops and even cars.

Rather than focussing solely on optimized battery materials to tackle lightweight demands, Leif Asp and co-authors demonstrated that exploiting the electrochemical properties of carbon fibres used for structural support could drop device masses by as much as 50%.

Compensator expands global access to advanced radiotherapy

To Eric Ford from University of Washington Medical Center and his colleagues for creating a low-cost method for implementing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). IMRT is a precision treatment technique that uses complex multileaf collimators (MLCs) to shape the photon beam and spare more healthy tissue. But while IMRT is available in essentially all radiotherapy clinics in high-income countries, it is largely absent in vast regions of low- and middle-income countries. To address this shortfall, Ford and a multi-institutional team developed a cost-effective alternative to the MLC, replacing it with a ring of compensators made from lightweight plastic moulds filled with attenuating beads such as tungsten beads. The proposed device can be retrofitted to existing linac and cobalt teletherapy units – allowing clinics to add IMRT without having to purchase a new treatment system.

IPCC Special Report on 1.5 °C climate change

To the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for its Special Report on 1.5 °C climate change, which was released in October.

The work of 91 authors and review editors from 40 countries, the report resulted from the Paris climate talks in 2015 and highlights the climate-change impacts that could be avoided if the world gets its act together and limits global warming to 1.5 °C.

“Every extra bit of warming matters, especially since warming of 1.5 °C or higher increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as the loss of some ecosystems,” said Hans-Otto Pörtner, co-chair of IPCC Working Group II. Read more in our special collection on climate change at 1.5 °C.

EXPLORER PET/CT produces first total-body scans

To the EXPLORER consortium for producing the first human images using their total-body PET scanner.

The EXPLORER PET/CT is the world’s first medical imaging system that can capture a 3D image of the entire human body simultaneously.

Developed by UC Davis scientists and a multi-institutional consortium, EXPLORER can scan up to 40 times faster, or use up to 40 times less radiation dose, than current PET systems, making it possible to conduct repeated studies in an individual, or dramatically reduce dose in paediatric studies.

The high-sensitivity scanner can also create movies that track radiolabelled drugs as they move around the body.

Combustion-free, propeller-free plane takes flight

To Steve Barrett and colleagues at MIT for demonstrating the first flight of a propeller-free plane that is not powered by a combustion engine.Graphene high temperature superconductor

The plane, which has a five-metre wingspan, is instead propelled by an “ionic wind” of charged ions generated by wire electrodes running off a battery.

Announcing the flight, Barrett said he was inspired by a childhood love of Star Trek: “The future looked like it should be planes moving silently with no moving parts – maybe a blue glow but certainly no propellers or turbines or anything like that.

So I started looking for what physics would make flight with no moving parts possible.”

Graphene high temperature superconductor

Quantum mechanics defies causal order, experiment confirms

To Jacqui RomeroFabio Costa, Kaumudibikash Goswami, Christina Giarmatzi, Michael Kewming and Andrew White of the University of Queensland and Cyril Branciard of the University of Grenoble Alpes for their experimental demonstration that quantum mechanics can allow events to occur with no definite causal order.

This is unlike classical physics – and everyday life – in which there is a strict causal relationship between consecutive events.

To observe indefinite causality the team created a “quantum switch”, in which a photon can take two paths.

One path involves the photon being subjected to operation A before operation B, while in the other path B occurs before A.

If the operations are performed close together in time, then it becomes impossible to tell which was done first. Indefinite causal order – along with team’s quantum switch – could prove useful for processing quantum information.

Activating retinal stem cells restores vision in mice

To Bo Chen from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and an international research team for successfully restoring vision in mice by activating retinal stem cells.

In cold-blooded vertebrates, Müller glia cells (MGs) act as retinal stem cells that can replenish damaged retinal neurons and restore vision. In mammals, however, MGs do not have regenerative capability. Graphene high temperature superconductor

In this study, Chen and colleagues aimed to reactivate the MGs by performing a two-step gene transfer process to reprogram MGs in blind mice.

Between four and six weeks after the reprogramming, the mice could sense light and regained their vision. While further tests are needed to determine the degree of sight improvement, the approach could one day transform treatment for patients with retinal degenerative diseases, which currently have no cure.

Ancient hydrogen reveals clues to dark matter’s identity

To Judd Bowman, Raul Monsalve, Thomas Mozdzen and Nivedita Mahesh of Arizona State University Arizona State University and Alan Rogers of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for using the EDGES radio telescope to observe colder-than-expected hydrogen gas that existed just 180 million years after the Big Bang; and Rennan Barkana, of Tel Aviv University for calculating that this could be the first direct observation of a non-gravitational interaction between dark matter and conventional matter.

While further observations are needed to back-up this hypothesis, the research could help resolve one of the most important unsolved mysteries of physics: what is the nature of dark matter?

Graphene high temperature superconductor

Superconductivity spotted in a quasicrystal

To Keiichiro Imura, Kazuhiko Deguchi, Tsutomu Ishimasa, Keisuke Kamiya, Nobuo Wada and Noriaki Sato of Nagoya University, Tsunehiro Takeuchi of the Toyota Technological Institute, Tsutomu Ishimasa of the Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute and Noriyuki Kabeya of Tohoku University for discovering the first superconducting quasicrystal – a metal-alloy that is a superconductor a temperatures lower than 0.05 K.

Conventional superconductivity arises when pairs of electrons form via an interaction with phonons, which are particle-like deformations that propagate through crystalline lattices.

Quasicrystals do not have translational symmetry and therefore do not have crystalline lattices – and should therefore not be conventional superconductors.

Since the first quasicrystals were discovered in 1984, some physicists have suggested that superconductivity could occur in quasicrystals and now this discovery could lead to the creation of new materials that display fractal superconductivity.

 

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Aquafil Phoenix Carpet Recycling

Aquafil Hosts Grand Opening at Phoenix Carpet Recycling Plant  Aquafil Phoenix Carpet Recycling

Aquafil Phoenix Carpet Recycling

Mr.Giulio Bonazzi Discusses Aquafil’s New Carpet Recycling Facility in Pheonix, Arizona 

Aquafil hosted the grand opening for its Phoenix, Arizona-based carpet recycling plant on December 13.

The $25 million investment represents the first of five plants in Aquafil’s long-term plan. The second will open in 2019 in Sacramento, California.

One-hundred-sixty guests-including customers, suppliers and sustainability experts-attended.

The facility uses two production lines to break down post-consumer carpet into three components for recycling.

Nylon 6 fiber that will be shipped to Aquafil’s Slovenia depolymerization facility and converted into new carpet fiber.

Polypropylene fiber that will be molded into new products, and calcium carbonate is used in concrete and roadwork.Aquafil Phoenix Carpet Recycling

In addition to being converted back into new carpet, Aquafil’s Econyl branded 100% recycled fiber is sold to over 400 different apparel and fashion brands that include Levis, Speedo and Adidas.Aquafil Phoenix Carpet Recycling

Giulio Bonazzi, CEO for Aquafil, said that the idea of creating a network of carpet recycling facilities started 20 years ago with a conversation he had with Interface’s late Ray Anderson.

“In a circular economy, we should manufacture everything with the end in mind,” says Bonazzi.Aquafil Phoenix Carpet Recycling

Dayna Baumeister, the founder of Biomimicry 3.8, spoke at the event as well David Oakey, the well know carpet designer from Interface. Oakey noted, “I think Ray Anderson is smiling today.”

Listen to today’s audio interview here for more details.

Related Topics:Interface

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Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling 17-12-2018

-Polymers PET rPET Petrochemicals Prices

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-Crude Oil Prices Trend

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-Aquafil Hosts Grand Opening at Phoenix Carpet Recycling Plant  Aquafil Phoenix Carpet Recycling

Mr.Giulio Bonazzi Discusses Aquafil’s New Carpet Recycling Facility in Pheonix, Arizona

Aquafil hosted the grand opening for its Phoenix, Arizona-based carpet recycling plant on December 13.

The $25 million investment represents the first of five plants in Aquafil’s long-term plan. The second will open in 2019 in Sacramento, California.

One-hundred-sixty guests-including customers, suppliers and sustainability experts-attended.

The facility uses two production lines to break down post-consumer carpet into three components for recycling.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

Mr.Giulio Bonazzi Discusses Aquafil’s New Carpet Recycling Facility in Pheonix, Arizona

-Market outlook: Europe ethylene heading for oversupply

The European ethylene market is in the limelight following a number of new investments announced by some market players.

In a bolt out of the blue, INEOS declared plans for new projects in northern Europe at a value of €2.7bn, comprising an ethane-based cracker and a propane dehydrogenation (PDH) plant.

Not only are greenfield units being considered, but also a few expansions of existing facilities. INEOS has approved an ethylene capacity enlargement at its Grangemouth complex in Scotland, UK.

A new furnace will be fed by ethane and is expected to start commercial production in the fourth quarter of 2020 or early 2021.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-Will 2019 be another tumultuous year for North American polyester?

More of the same is expected in the North American polyester industry next year as the PET resin and purified terephthalic acid (PTA) supply and demand balance for 2019-20 is likely to remain tight, with recycled PET (rPET) expected to benefit from additional opportunities.

This year has seen major changes in the North American polyester and upstream intermediates markets, as various plant outages tightened up the supply and demand balances, ownerships changed, PET resin pricing power shifted to producers, new fibre capacity was announced, and China’s waste ban was implemented.

All of this, said Wood Mackenzie Chemicals in its outlook for PET, occurred in an uncertain and shifting economic and trade environment of the Trump Administration.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-SABIC invests in chemical recycling

Company partners with Plastic Energy to build a commercial plant in the Netherlands to refine and upgrade TACOIL, which is made from mixed plastic scrap.

SABIC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a global leader in the chemical industry, has announced the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with U.K.-based Plastic Energy Ltd., a chemical plastics recycling company.

Under the MoU, Plastic Energy will supply TACOIL, a patented produce from Plastic Energy to support SABIC’s petrochemical operations in Europe.

The companies intend to build a commercial plant in the Netherlands to refine and upgrade TACOIL, which will be produced from the recycling of low-quality, mixed plastic scrap otherwise destined for incineration or landfill.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-US pressure more on Iran’s oil products rather than crude oil – minister

Iran Oil Minister Bijan Zangeneh has indicated the heavy US pressure on Iran’s sales of oil products, and the effects of sanctions on the country’s “gas plans” with Pakistan.

“The threats against OPEC have partly foreign and domestic origins. The current trend in the market indicates that the OPEC’s positive move on cutting the oil output was accepted,” the minister said, Trend reports citing ILNA.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-Bento Lunch Box Company Discusses The Advantages Of Eco-Friendly Plastics

Raleigh, North Carolina – December 14, 2018 – Kangovou, a bento lunch box company, recently released a blog discussing the top advantages of using eco-friendly plastics, such as those used in their bento lunch boxes.

These advantages can benefit both the environment and your family’s health in several ways, and you may want to consider swapping your traditional plastic containers for bento lunch boxes and other eco-friendly alternatives.

Several popular plastics have been known to cause health issues, particularly in children. BPA and HDPE may leach estrogen-like chemicals into food, which cause hormonal imbalances and reproductive harm.

Styrofoam, or polystyrene, can leach styrene, a neurotoxin. Another popular plastic, PVC, is used in a wide range of products and can cause developmental delays.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-Europe PET January mood influenced by contracts, imports and feedstocks

The polyethylene terephthalate (PET) mood for January and therefore the freely negotiated prices in Europe will be influenced by conversion fee increases affecting contracts, import deliveries and feedstock moves.

– Higher conversion fees due in 2019

– Imports due into Europe in Q1

– Feedstock forecasts vary

ContractsThe new contracts based on conversion fees over raw material costs are due to come into effect in 2019, and other than those buyers waiting to the bitter end before settling, the majority have agreed to an increase compared to 2018.

Justification for higher raw material-plus contracts included rising conversion fee costs for upstream purified terephthalic acid (PTA).

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-Discovery of ‘magic-angle graphene’ that behaves like a high-temperature superconductor is Physics World 2018 Breakthrough of the Year  Graphene high temperature superconductor

The Physics World 2018 Breakthrough of the Year goes to Pablo Jarillo-Herrero of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US and colleagues for making the discovery that led to the development of “twistronics”, which is a new and very promising technique for adjusting the electronic properties of graphene by rotating adjacent layers of the material.Graphene high temperature superconductor

The technique was first used by the team to create “magic-angle graphene”, which behaves like a high-temperature superconductor.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-Opec has lost its capacity to control oil prices

Several obituaries of Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) have been written since the mid 1980s. All of them have turned out to be exaggerated.

Recent ones are also no different. The Opec is not dead. Neither is it effective as it was in late ‘70s and it is reinventing itself now with Opec+ by pulling in 10 more countries like Russia, Kazakhstan, Mexico etc.

This article deals with the reasons for some experts prophesying its death and also its waning power.

The Opec came into existence in 1960. Five oil exporting countries,

Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela came together to put pressure mostly on the so-called seven sisters (now it is reduced to four, Exxon, Chevron, Shell and BP) to secure better deals.

However, till 1973, Opec could not use its bargaining power to increase oil price.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-All eyes on Saudi as oil bulls cut bets to lowest since 2016 

Hedge funds aren’t buying into Opec’s oil-production cuts just yet.

They slashed net wagers on a rally of West Texas Intermediate crude to the lowest in more than two years, while short-selling of Brent oil climbed for a record 11th week.

Both benchmarks ended the week lower as the group’s efforts were overshadowed by concern about booming shale production and waning global demand. It’s mostly up to Saudi Arabia now to try to win investors over.

“Demand is now decreasing and you have a problem with Chinese growth,” said Tariq Zahir, a commodity fund manager at Tyche Capital Advisors LLC. “Right now, everything is dependent on what Saudi Arabia does.”

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-There needs to be another oil production cut for a price spike

The latest one does not seem to have done much to bring about a rally

Never mind the tweets, the threats and the hallelujah for its demise — Opec and associate producers led by Russia have done it again.

Oil producers had in recent months increased production significantly to accommodate the market for the severe sanctions on Iran oil exports, only to find President Trump softening the sanctions, by giving exemptions, at the last minute and the oil market became flooded with supplies.

No wonder then oil prices lost more than 30 per cent from nearly $86 a barrel in early October to somewhere around $59 a barrel before the latest Opec meeting.

After perhaps some hesitation, the fifth Opec and non-Opec Ministerial meeting reaffirmed on December 7 the commitment of producing countries for a stable market.

And decided to adjust overall production by 1.2 million barrels a day (bpd), effective from January for an initial period of six months.

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

-No 10 denies making plans for second Brexit referendum

PM presses on with quest for EU help on backstop as cabinet lines up behind alternatives

Theresa May will summon EU27 ambassadors to No 10 this week as she continues to seek reassurances over the Irish backstop, with Downing Street vehemently denying drawing up contingency plans for a second referendum.

The education secretary, Damian Hinds, said on Sunday: “Government policy couldn’t be clearer. We are here to act on the will of the people clearly expressed in the referendum.”

Plastic petrochemicals rPET recycling

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Polymers PET rPET Petrochemicals Prices

Polymers PET rPET Petrochemicals Prices

         Polyestertime

ITEM10/12/201817/12/2018+/-
Bottle grade PET chips domestic market8,540 yuan/ton8,350 yuan/ton-190
Bottle grade PET chips export market1,100 $/ton1,080 $/ton-20
Filament grade Semidull chips domestic market8,175 yuan/ton8,175 yuan/ton
Filament grade Bright chips domestic market8,225 yuan/ton8,250 yuan/ton+25
Pure Terephthalic Acid PTA domestic market6,680 yuan/ton6,685 yuan/ton+5
Pure Terephthalic Acid PTA export market860 $/ton865 $/ton+5
Monoethyleneglycol MEG domestic market5,850 yuan/ton5,815 yuan/ton-35
Monoethyleneglycol MEG export market700 $/ton687 $/ton-13
Paraxylene PX FOB  Taiwan market1,068 $/ton1,072 $/ton+4
Paraxylene PX FOB  Korea market1,048 $/ton1,052 $/ton+4
Paraxylene PX FOB EU market965 $/ton968 $/ton+3
Polyester filament POY 150D/48F domestic market 

8,620 yuan/ton

 

8,770 yuan/ton

 

+150

Recycled Polyester filament POY  domestic market 

8,050 yuan/ton

 

8,450 yuan/ton

 

+400

Polyester filament DTY 150D/48 F domestic market 

10,450 yuan/ton

 

10,250 yuan/ton

 

-200

Polyester filament FDY 68D24F domestic market  

9,800 yuan/ton

 

10,050 yuan/ton

 

+250

Polyester filament FDY 150D/96F domestic market 

9,250 yuan/ton

 

9,475 yuan/ton

 

+225

Polyester staple fiber 1.4D 38mm domestic market 

9,000 yuan/ton

 

9,100 yuan/ton

 

+100

Caprolactam CPL domestic market13,800 yuan/ton13,000 yuan/ton-800
Caprolactam CPL overseas  market1,800 $/ton1,670 $/ton-130
Nylon6 chips overseas  market2,210 $/ton2,120 $/ton-90
Nylon6 chips conventional spinning domestic  market 

15,800 yuan/ton

 

14,500 yuan/ton

 

-1,300

Nylon6 chips  high speed spinning domestic  market 

16,100 yuan/ton

 

15,500 yuan/ton

 

-600

Nylon66 chips domestic  market35,400 yuan/ton34,700 yuan/ton-700
Nylon6 Filament POY 86D/24F domestic  market 

18,800 yuan/ton

 

18,200 yuan/ton

 

-600

Nylon6 Filament DTY 70D/24F domestic  market 

22,100 yuan/ton

 

21,500 yuan/ton

 

-600

Nylon6 Filament FDY  70D/24F  domestic  market 

19,500 yuan/ton

 

19,100 yuan/ton

 

-400

Spandex 20D  domestic  market39,500  yuan/ton39,500  yuan/ton
Spandex 30D  domestic  market38,500  yuan/ton38,500  yuan/ton
Spandex 40D  domestic  market33,500  yuan/ton33,500  yuan/ton
Adipic Acid domestic market8,000 yuan/ton8,000 yuan/ton
Benzene domestic market5,400 yuan/ton5,150 yuan/ton-250
Benzene overseas  market616 $/ton601 $/ton-15
Ethylene South East market760 $/ton770 $/ton+10
Ethylene NWE  market850 $/ton861 $/ton+11
Acrylonitrile ACN  domestic market11,600 yuan/ton11,800 yuan/ton+200
Acrylonitrile ACN  overseas market1,600 $/ton1,600 $/ton
Acrylic staple fiber ASF  domestic market16,000 yuan/ton16,000 yuan/ton
Viscose Staple Fiber VSF  domestic market13,900 yuan/ton13,880 yuan/ton-20
PP Powder domestic market9,400 yuan/ton9,225 yuan/ton-175
Naphtha overseas market          489 $/ton507 $/ton+18
Phenol domestic market 8,700 yuan/ton8,475 yuan/ton-225
PS Taiwan 5250 GPPS1,290 $/ton1,295 $/ton+5
PS Taiwan 8250 HIPS1,390 $/ton1,395 $/ton+5+5
LDPE CFR Far East 1,023 $/ton1,032 $/ton+9
LLDPE CFR Far East1012 $/ton1022 $/ton+10
LDPE   FOB Middle East1,004 $/ton1,013 $/ton+9
LLDPE FOB Middle East979 $/ton1,005 $/ton+26
HDPE CFR Far East1,051 $/ton1,059 $/ton+1
Homopolymer PP CFR Far East1,050 $/ton1,050 $/ton
Homopolymer PP FD NWE1,204 €/ton1,204 €/ton

 

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