HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles 02-01-2023
HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
rPET-Bottle – Bright-chips – MEG
-January contract price of ethylene in Europe decreased by EUR95 per ton
The contract price of ethylene for January delivery in Europe has been agreed at EUR1,175 per tonne, eur95 per tonne less than in December, ICIS said.
The contract price was approved on the terms of FD NWE (with delivery to North-West Europe).
The agreement was directly confirmed by two producers and two consumers. The contract price is considered fully established when it is directly confirmed by at least two producers and two consumers. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
The cost of naphtha raw materials fell from month to month. Demand remains low, but continues to be offset by reduced capacity of cracker rigs, while inventory balances are under control.
Earlier it was reported that the contract price of ethylene for delivery in December in Europe was agreed at the level of EUR1,270 per ton, which is EUR25 per ton less than in November.
According to the ScanPlast review, according to the results of ten months of 2022 in Russia, the estimated consumption of polyethylene (excluding exports to Belarus and Kazakhstan) amounted to 2,116.68 thousand tons, which is 7% more than in the same period a year earlier. The supply of LDPE and LDL has increased.
-United Kingdom: Food-grade HDPE recycling champion
Recycling of HDPE – the (im)possible
Nowadays, recycling PET is pretty much common practice in Europe and many other regions. But HDPE is a more difficult story: the chemical composition of the plastic is aligned to the needs of the bottle’s content – packaging for aggressive detergents needs more additives than milk bottles, which are in the best case free of any modifications.
In most countries, recycling HDPE implies an inevitable loss in quality and an amalgamation of food-grade and non-food-grade HDPE – therefore, the recyclate cannot be used for any applications that require high-quality material or need to meet certain food standards. But not in United Kingdom. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
Although the country is facing the same issues as any other country in implementing an efficient, end-user-friendly recycling stream, recycling milk bottles is a constantly growing success story.
Back in 2008, the British government decided to push towards a closed-loop recycling cycle for milk bottles made of food-grade HDPE. In most regions, milk bottles are collected via the general household waste collection, then sorted according to their typical form and size. Thanks to this mono-fraction recycling of milk bottles, British rHDPE has an excellent quality and meets all requirements for use in food packaging.
Today, the recycling rate of HDPE milk bottles in the United Kingdom is between 15 and 40 per cent, with processing output of around 26,000 tons of recycled food-grade polymer, which is converted back into milk bottles. Several initiatives are ongoing and investments are being made to increase the recycling rate as well as the output even further.
The most sustainable milk packaging
The well-established food-grade material HDPE circular economy stream, which is well accepted in the United Kingdom, offered ALPLA a unique opportunity: following a decade of development and implementation efforts, the team in the United Kingdom was finally able to introduce a minimum quota of recycled material for a certain product type.
To cite Malcom Finch, the Regional Business Manager & Company Director of ALPLA UK: ‘With a minimum of 30 per cent rHDPE in our milk and juice bottles, we are definitely the front runner – not only within the bottle producers in the United Kingdom, but also within the global ALPLA network. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
My team and I worked hard to achieve this, and we are now of course very proud.’ Thanks to the constant investments in food-grade rHDPE recycling, chances are high that the minimum percentage of recycled material in ALPLA bottles can be raised even more in the near future.
But there is more to tell about ALPLA’s achievements in the British HDPE bottle segment. The fact that these bottles are made of a minimum of 30 per cent and up to 40 per cent rHDPE is already something to be very proud of. Many of them are produced in-house, right at the customer’s plant. This lowers environmental impacts significantly – no secondary packaging, no transportation and thus lower CO2 emissions.
HDPE offers one further major advantage: for most applications, the bottle can be made of natural HDPE. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
This means no additives, no colouring and no limitation in recyclability. If the bottler’s choice is on top one of ALPLA’s most lightweight bottles, like the handled bottle EcoBottle at only 21.5 g in the one-litre size and 33 g in the 2.275-litre size, no other packaging manufacturer type can keep up with ALPLA.
-Overabundance of paraxylene in Europe will remain a problem in 2023 amid capacity expansion in Asia and weak demand
An overabundance of paraxylene in Europe will continue to be a problem in 2023 as new production facilities are expected to be launched in Asia, ICIS reported.
Meanwhile, demand from European buyers for refining and sales is likely to remain low amid a gloomy macroeconomic outlook.
In 2022, one production of paraxylene was launched in China, and in early 2023, two more are expected to be opened. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
Between 2023 and 2025, seven new paraxylene plants with a total capacity of 9 million tonnes per year were announced: three in China and the rest in Russia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and India.
In Europe, production capacity could be cut in 2023 as one paraxylene producer is likely to close its plant from January to June, according to market sources close to the company. Some market players suggest that the shutdown will be final, but the manufacturer cannot confirm this information.
Even if this closure of the paraxylene plant is carried out, most market participants do not expect to see a shortage of material in the European market in 2023.
At the same time, the demand for paraxylene in Europe is expected to grow by 7% in 2023 compared to the previous year. Demand growth will be hampered by a gloomy macroeconomic scenario in 2023, as many European countries approach recession amid high inflation and rising interest rates. Global demand growth for paraxylene is expected to grow by more than 4% in 2023. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
Northeast Asia was by far the largest region of paraxylene consumption in 2022, accounting for about three-quarters of global demand, followed by Asia and the Pacific (12%), North America (6%) and Europe (4%).
Earlier it was reported that the consumption of paraxylene in the US will remain low in the first half of 2023 due to low demand from the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sector.
According to the ScanPlast review, the estimated consumption of PET in October of this year decreased by 16% compared to a year earlier and amounted to 58.53 thousand tons (against 69.28 thousand tons in October 2021). According to the results of ten months of 2022, 680.14 thousand tons of PET were processed in Russia, which is 1% less than the same indicator last year. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
-PepsiCo to Introduce Recycled Plastic Bottles Across AMESA by 2023
PepsiCo aims to continue its progress towards expanding plastic collection programs to 14 AMESA markets
PepsiCo is introducing bottles made from recycled plastic in several of the region’s markets across beverage brands like Aquafina and Pepsi.
With only 1 country in the region allowing the use of recycled plastic in food and beverage packaging in 2020, PepsiCo continues its journey of policy unlocks aiming to introduce recycled bottles across 10 AMESA countries by 2023. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
PepsiCo aims to continue its progress towards expanding plastic collection programs to 14 AMESA markets by developing recycling infrastructure through advocacy and partnerships by 2023.
The reiterated sustainability commitment comes as PepsiCo marks one year of its strategic, end-to-end transformation, called pep+, which puts sustainability at the center of the company’s growth and value.
From sourcing ingredients to making and selling its products more sustainably, pep+ connects the future of its business with the future of the planet.
Envisioning a world where packaging never becomes waste, PepsiCo’s pep+ ambition aims to design 100% of its packaging to be recyclable, compostable, biodegradable or reusable by 2025. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
PepsiCo already introduced recycled plastic in some beverage brands in South Africa and Bangladesh in 2022 and is gearing to bring in recycled plastic bottles across Egypt, Qatar, Kuwait, Pakistan, and other AMESA countries by 2023.
PepsiCo is also the first food and beverage company to locally introduce 100% rPET in Qatar and Kuwait in 2022, followed by other GCC countries by 2023.
In Egypt, as policymakers lay out an ambitious COP27 roadmap, PepsiCo launched the biggest PET collection program in Egypt ‘Recycle for Tomorrow’ in 2021 and is now introducing locally manufactured recycled plastic bottles as part of its efforts to build a circular economy by 2030.
Eugene Willemsen, CEO, PepsiCo AMESA said: “Packaging circularity has been a key priority of PepsiCo’s pep+ sustainability goals. Our partnership with region-wide governments and industry coalitions has helped successfully unlock use of rPET across 13 AMESA countries by 2022.
“Our commitment to multi-stakeholder collaboration and accelerated investment in recycling infrastructure will advance our efforts in waste management and packaging circularity.” HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
-The contract price of benzene in Europe for supply in January increased by EUR145 per ton
The contract price of benzene in Europe for Shipments in January was agreed at EUR812 per tonne, eur145 per tonne more than in December, ICIS said.
The agreement was confirmed by two sellers and three buyers. The contract price was agreed on the terms of CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight), NWE (Northwest Europe).
The January contract price was agreed in US dollars at USD863 per tonne and converted to euros at the agreed exchange rate EUR1=USD1.0624.
Thus, the January contract price in Europe increased by USD172 per ton compared to December in dollar terms. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
The rise in the January contract follows a reduction in material supply in recent weeks as manufacturers have reduced production load due to low demand for derivatives, high costs and a gloomy market outlook.
Benzene contract prices are now the highest since November.
Earlier it was reported that the December contract price for benzene in Europe was agreed at the level of EUR667 per ton, which is EUR196 per ton lower than in November. The December contract price was agreed in US dollars at USD691 per tonne and converted to euro at the agreed exchange rate EUR1=USD1,034.
Benzene is the raw material for the production of styrene, which, in turn, is the main raw material for the production of polystyrene (PS).
According to the ScanPlast review, the estimated consumption of polystyrene and styrene plastics in the first nine months of 2022 amounted to 402.93 thousand tons, which is 4% less than the volume of consumption for the same period last year.
-Quantum bits: because the discovery of the Cnr on diamond changes everything
Thanks to a collaboration between the research groups led by Shane Eaton of the Institute of photonics and nanotechnology of the National Research Council (Cnr-Ifn) of Milan and by Alexander Kubanek of the University of Ulm, an innovative manufacturing method has been developed and hybrid to make photonic circuits using diamond: an essential step to develop quantum bits (qubits), the building block of quantum information.
Quantum networks are based on systems connected to each other for the transfer of information, exploiting quantum-mechanical properties such as entanglement and superposition of states. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
The ability to modify light at the single photon level in an integrated device is a fundamental requirement for developing the new generation of quantum networks: this will make it possible to build advanced computers to solve some complex problems more and more quickly, but also to use communication channels safe to transfer encrypted information.
“In diamond there are, and can be suitably engineered, lattice defects capable of being used as qubits”, explains Shane Eaton, researcher at the Cnr-Ifn. “These are color centers, reticular positions where an impurity is present and a carbon atom is missing, and in which it is possible to encode, control and manipulate quantum information in the form of qubits. This particular morphology – and the presence of these defects – makes diamond a promising candidate for quantum technologies”.
The Italian team, together with colleagues from the University of Ulm, demonstrated that it is possible to precisely place qubits based on silicon-vacancy centers within photonic circuits formed using diamond lasers. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
“These results arise from the first demonstration (Eaton, Nature Scientific Reports, 2016) that femtosecond lasers – i.e. lasers that emit very short and close pulses, a femtosecond being one millionth of a billionth of a second – can create photonic connections in diamond, which are the building blocks needed for quantum computing,” explains Eaton. “Another fundamental ingredient is, then, that of creating qubits: with this new technique we have developed a chip integrated in diamond, capable of engineering light at the single photon level. The next step will be to fabricate a three-dimensional photonic circuit to make possible systems for next generation quantum computing in diamond, such as to allow the processing of a considerable amount of data simultaneously, with extreme speed”, specifies the researcher. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
The importance of these issues, both at a fundamental and technological level, has also recently been demonstrated by the awarding of the Nobel Prize for Physics 2022 to Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger: these results therefore assume great importance for the future development of cutting-edge quantum technologies. This work was made possible thanks to the Marie-Skłodowska-Curie innovative training network (ITN) programme, a European funding coordinated by Eaton, with the collaboration, among others, of the Doctoral School of the Milan Polytechnic. “Our ITN allows the training of 13 promising PhD students, in European laboratories, both university and industrial, in interdisciplinary fields. HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles
In this case, collaboration with our partner, the University of Ulm, has led us to this new discovery, which will have a major impact on the imminent quantum revolution and the future of computing,” concludes Eaton.
-EIA: proved reserves of US natural gas established a new record; oil reserves increased by 16% at the end of 2021
In 2021, proved reserves of natural gas set a new record in the United States, and proved reserves of crude oil and lease condensate increased, but not quite to pre-pandemic levels, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Energy demand rose from the 2020 lows that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic, pushing up prices and making more US resources economically viable.
Proved reserves are operator estimates of the volumes of oil and natural gas that geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
Reserves estimates change from year to year because of:
- New discoveries
- Thorough appraisals of existing fields
- Production of existing reserves
- Changes in prices and costs
- New and improved techniques and technologies
Estimates of proved reserves are heavily influenced by prices. Higher 2021 prices for crude oil and natural gas were a contributor to higher proved reserve estimates.
The 12-month, first-of-the-month average spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma increased by 67% from $39.66 per barrel in 2020 to $66.26 per barrel in 2021. Texas, where more proved reserves of crude oil and lease condensate are located than any other, saw the largest net increase in proved reserves in 2021.
In 2021, Texas’s annual crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves increased by 12% (1.9 billion barrels) from 16.7 billion barrels to 18.6 billion barrels. New Mexico saw the second-largest net increase of proved reserves of crude oil and lease condensate (39%, 1.4 billion barrels), and Alaska the third-largest (31%, 0.7 billion barrels).
The 12-month, first-of-the-month average spot price for natural gas at the US benchmark Henry Hub in Louisiana increased by 84% from $1.99 per million British thermal units (MMBtu) in 2020 to $3.67/MMBtu in 2021. Alaska had the largest increase in proved reserves of natural gas in 2021 (173%, 63.3 trillion cubic feet), which almost tripled the state total compared with 2020. Texas had the second-largest increase of natural gas proved reserves in 2021 (30%, 34 trillion cubic feet). New Mexico had the third-largest increase of natural gas proved reserves (38%, 10 trillion cubic feet).
HDPE-recycling – rPET-Bottles