Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil 26-04-2022
Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
A new path for recycling polystyrene waste that uses light, an oxygen-rich environment, and an abundant iron-based catalyst, has been discovered by researchers at the College of Arts & Sciences at Cornell University (Ithaca, New York, USA; www.cornell.edu). A research paper on the recycling method, Chemical Upcycling of Commercial Polystyrene via Catalyst-Controlled Photo Oxidation, was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society by the American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.; www.acs.org).
The process to recycle waste PS, a material that makes up a third of the landfill waste worldwide, includes it being upcycled into benzoic acid and other products that can be repurposed, according to Erin Stache, assistant professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Cornell. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
The researchers applied a catalyst-controlled photooxidative degradation method, where the PS sample in acetone is exposed to LED light in an oxygen-rich environment using an iron chloride catalyst for 20 hours.
Researchers in Stache’s lab found the PS recycling process to be mild, climate-friendly, and scalable to commercial waste streams. The process is tolerant of additives inherent in a flow of consumer waste, including dirt, dyes, and other types of plastics. Degradation tests showed that sunlight could be harnessed by some of the catalysts they’ve developed at the lab to achieve good control over the chemical process. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
The researchers also tested the tolerance of the process to other materials mixed with PS plastic, ranging from packaging materials to coffee cup lids.
Refuel Energy Inc. has announced its plans for the construction of a 3,000 barrels per day renewable fuel plant in Southern Ontario, Canada.
The proposed project, called Refuel YYZ, would supply the aviation and terrestrial fuel needs of the Greater Toronto area, home to 6 million Canadians, while lowering the CO2 emissions for the end users by up to 80%. It is also strategically located for exporting to the US Northeast. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
The plant would utilize Haldor Topsoe’s proprietary HydroFlex and H2bridge technologies for the production of renewable diesel and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). Planned feedstocks include a mix of waste fats, oils and greases , such as regionally-sourced used cooking oil, animal fats and non-edible crop oils.
“We are very pleased that Refuel has selected our HydroFlex and H2bridge technologies for this state of the art, standalone renewable diesel and SAF facility. Our market-leading technologies are complementary and together they will produce some of the lowest carbon intensity renewable fuels in the world,” says Henrik Rasmussen, Managing Director, The Americas at Topsoe.
“This is an important milestone in the development of Refuel YYZ. We are thrilled to be building such a strong team with Topsoe and Fluor to produce our renewable fuels, ensuring a successful project execution,” said Zohrab Mawani, director and co-founder of Refuel. “There is much exciting news to share as we continue development and get closer to a low carbon future.” Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
We are currently living in a time when plastic is one of the biggest pollutants. Plastic is not a renewable resource which means that unless it’s actively recycled into something else, it won’t break down and is sent to a landfill where it will stay there, polluting the environment. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
Recycling is when you reuse the waste products of water bottles in order to use them again, sorting them to be repurposed. It could be that a water bottle you’re currently drinking from has been recycled multiple times, showing just how important it is to do this rather than just throw your bottle away. Plastic recycling helps to preserve the earth’s natural resources such as gas, coal and water, sustaining it for future generations. Here we answer the question – why is recycling plastic bottles so important?
How does recycling plastic help the environment?
Recycling helps the environment in a multitude of ways – some of which have been loosely touched upon above. But how does recycling plastic help the environment? And what is the purpose of recycling plastic bottles?
As well as using less of the earth’s natural resources, it also stops dangerous chemicals and greenhouse gases from being released into the air when they’re deposited at landfill sites. Being one of the worst perpetrators of harming the environment, it’s more important than ever that we all do our bit. Statistics show that a recycled bottle uses up to 75% less energy to produce than a brand new plastic bottle – a significant number that shows how such a small act can impact the environment in a highly positive way. Below we speak in a bit more detail about the individual ways that recycling plastic can help the environment and sustain it for our future generations.
It reduces greenhouse gas emissions
A greenhouse gas is something that absorbs and emits radiant energy to the earth within the thermal infrared range. This can have a significant impact on the earth and leads to global warming, rising sea levels and the melting of the ice caps. In turn, this can wipe out animal species and have a devastating impact on future generations. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
Indonesia’s recent performance as the rotating chairman of the G20 and host country of this year’s G20 conference is truly commendable. Following the outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, Indonesia not only did not follow the West in targeting Russia, but also made it clear that “the topics related to the situation in Russia and Ukraine will not be discussed” at this year’s G20 summit, and sent an invitation letter to Russian President Vladimir Putin. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
In this respect, the US stated that “there is a Russian representation in the G20, but the US will not participate,” whereas Indonesia directly “says no” to the US, stating that Indonesia is a sovereign nation that does not require other countries to instruct it what to do. The invitation letter will not be removed after it has been issued. Not only that, but Indonesia has declared that it is willing to utilize India to fund the entry of Russian crude oil. The White House is anticipated to place a strong emphasis on Indonesia. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
According to certain sources, Indonesia has stated its plan to import Russian crude oil via India. According to reports, Nicke Widiawati, president director of Indonesia’s state oil company Pertamina, has already proposed in House of representatives purchasing Russian crude oil at a “good price,” saying,“As long as the Russian companies that do business with us are not sanctioned, there is no problem,” “We also discussed the possibility of paying through India.”
Compared with PET, China PETG plastic sheet boasts the biggest feature that PETG meets food FDA certification. People are now increasingly focusing on related PETG plastic products at home and abroad. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
PET: Poly (ethylene terephthalate)
PETG: Poly (ethylene terephthalate-co-1, 4-cylclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate)
Compared with PET, China PETG plastic sheet boasts the biggest feature that PETG meets food FDA certification. People are now increasingly focusing on related PETG plastic products at home and abroad.
PET polyethylene terephthalate, a condensation, is mainly used in food packaging films and textile fibers, and other applications. With its application range becoming wider, it is used as packaging material not only for beverage bottles but also for amorphous PET (APET) and crystalline PET (CPET) cans and plates. In the last five years, new polymer products engineering-grade PET and copolyester have been applied to the engineering and specialty purposes.
Its excellent toughness and clarity, orientation capabilities, excellent economic value and rapidly developed bottle processing technology have allowed China PETG clear plastic sheet to be successfully used in bottle beverage packaging materials. PET beverage cans are lightweight, shatter-resistant, reusable, and have very good air-tight performance. A filled 2L PET beverage bottle can be 24% lighter than a comparable glass bottle, and an empty bottle weighs 1/10th of the same type of glass bottle, thus saving labor, energy, and costs in the whole process from producer to consumer. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
China PETG plastic sheet for beverage bottles is produced from terephthalic acid (TPA), which is obtained by oxidation of paraxylene. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) is produced from purifying TPA or reacting TPA with methanol. Or TPA is further oxidized to produce pure terephthalic acid (PTA). Another basic raw material for PET is ethane, which is reacted and converted into ethylene glycol (EG). China white PETG sheet is a condensate produced by the polymerization of DMT (or PTA) with EG in the successive molten states, followed by a solid-state polymerization process to obtain large grains, final molecular weight and inherent viscosity. This solid-state process also results in a polymer with sufficiently low ethanol content. Typical PET resins melt at about 480℉ (248.89℃), but highly crystalline PET has a melting point of about 520℉ (271.11℃). Directional crystalline PET has excellent strength toughness and transparency. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
As of today, it is almost impossible to imagine working out a viable exchange rate bypassing the US dollar. However, the question of direct trade in local currency is being debated after the imposition of sanctions on Russia by the US and other Western nations. Recently, Russian President Vladimir Putin floated the idea of gold-based exchange rate. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
If we take an example of trade in local currency, of the trade between India and Iran, Indian rupee exchange rate is worked out at 554.31 Iranian rial. This reference rate has been worked out on US dollar-Iranian rial exchange rate of 42,300 rial and US dollar-Indian rupee exchange rate of 76.31. So, the reference rate remains the US dollar. The gold-based exchange rate, which aims to bypass the US dollar, is not tested as of now.
Having an alternate mechanism for trade has been on the agenda of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) for long, and has no relation to the current Russia-Ukraine crisis. But the issue became relevant again with the imposition of US sanctions on Russia in the wake of Russian attack on Ukraine.
The common payment system among the BRICS countries and the trade mechanism in local currency were discussed in talks between Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, who visited India some time back. Both the common payment system and trade mechanism in local currency are more diplomatically debatable points but the exchange rate is most important issue for exporters and importers.
In the current system, the exchange rate of various currencies of the exporting and importing countries is calculated based on US dollar. But a mechanism of exchange rate between India and Russia cannot be worked out easily because the value of the Russian ruble against the US dollar has depreciated drastically due to the war, while the Indian rupee is mostly steady against the dollar. Russian ruble has fallen from 70-75 to 110 against the US dollar in recent weeks, while Indian rupee has remained in the range of 72-76 against dollar. Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil
According to an expert from forex market, as a net importer country, India will gain from the steep fall of ruble as its value has come down from ₹1.05 to just 77 paise. But it may hurt Indian exporters from weakness of ruble or they will not be able to take orders. Experts believe that the only way would be for the government to make a system to compensate exporters.
Plastic-Recycling – Russian-crude-oil