Bioplastics carbon fibre – Is ammonia a new car fuel? 11-07-2023
Bioplastics carbon fibre
Automotive : Battery vs Hydrogen
As a battery manufacturer, I have watched the advancement of technologies in the automotive industry with great interest and attention. One development that has attracted some debate is the use of hydrogen as a form of energy for automobiles. While hydrogen may seem like a promising solution to reduce pollution and dependence on fossil fuels, I strongly believe there are many reasons to view the use of hydrogen in cars negatively.
First, hydrogen requires a large amount of energy to produce. Currently, the production of hydrogen occurs mainly through the process of electrolysis of water, which requires the use of electricity. If this energy comes from fossil sources, the entire hydrogen production process becomes polluting. Even if the energy comes from renewable sources, such as solar or wind energy, converting electrical energy into hydrogen and then into mechanical energy to power a car is inefficient compared to using electrical energy directly to power a drums.Bioplastics carbon fibre
Secondly, hydrogen is a highly flammable gas and requires very stringent safety measures. Its handling, storage and replenishment require specialized and expensive infrastructure. Hydrogen cars must be equipped with high-pressure tanks, which add weight and reduce the vehicle’s efficiency. Additionally, hydrogen leaks can pose a significant risk, as it is an invisible and highly flammable gas. The hydrogen refueling infrastructure is still very limited and expensive to deploy on a large scale.
Thirdly, lithium-ion batteries are demonstrating rapid improvement in terms of capacity, life and cost. Battery-powered electric cars are already widely adopted and gaining popularity around the world. Lithium-ion batteries have proven to be reliable and safe, with charging infrastructure becoming more widespread. Focusing efforts on lithium-ion battery research and development can lead to further improvements and increased adoption of electric cars, thus reducing pollution and dependence on fossil fuels more efficiently and cost-effectively. Bioplastics carbon fibre
Furthermore, hydrogen also has energy efficiency issues. Converting hydrogen to electricity in a fuel cell has a lower yield than simply recharging and discharging a battery. This means that more energy is lost during the conversion, resulting in a lower overall efficiency. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen requires more space for the installation of tanks, reducing the transport capacity of cars.
Finally, the infrastructure needed for the widespread use of hydrogen would require huge investments and considerable time to roll out on a massive scale. Meanwhile, the adoption of battery-based electric cars could be accelerated by using existing electric charging infrastructure. Bioplastics carbon fibre
In conclusion, although hydrogen may appear to be an attractive solution for fueling cars, there are many reasons to consider its use negatively. From polluting production, to safety, energy efficiency and infrastructure costs, the use of hydrogen for cars presents significant challenges. On the other hand, Li-ion batteries have proven to be a more efficient and cost-effective solution for vehicle electrification. Focusing efforts on battery research and development could lead to even greater improvements and accelerate the transition to a more sustainable future in the automotive industry. Bioplastics carbon fibre
Oil dips $1 on interest rate fears, but OPEC+ cuts limit fall
Oil prices eased by $1 a barrel on Monday on the increasing likelihood of more U.S. interest rate hikes, but crude supply cuts from top oil exporters Saudi Arabia and Russia limited the losses.
Brent crude futures were down 79 cents, or 1%, at $77.66 a barrel at 1:24 p.m. EDT (1724 GMT). They touched their highest level in more than two months earlier in the session. Bioplastics carbon fibre
U.S. West Texas Intermediate crude was down 94 cents, or 1.3%, at $72.90.
“Traders are very nervous about higher interest rates, which could kill demand very quickly,” said Dennis Kissler, senior vice president of trading at BOK Financial, adding that some investors were also engaging in profit-taking after last week’s gains.
Both benchmarks rose more than 4.5% last week after Saudi Arabia and Russia announced fresh output cuts bringing total reductions by the OPEC+ group to around 5 million barrels per day (bpd), or about 5% of global oil demand.
San Francisco Federal Reserve President Mary Daly on Monday repeated that she believes two more rate hikes this year will likely be needed to bring down inflation that is still too high, while Cleveland Fed President Loretta Mester also signaled more rate rises.
Higher interest rates could slow economic growth and reduce oil demand.
The U.S. Labor Department reported last Friday the smallest monthly job gain in two-and-a-half years along with strong wage growth. The data strengthened the likelihood that the Fed would raise interest rates at its meeting later this month.
Meanwhile, China’s factory gate prices fell at the fastest pace in more than seven years in June, according to government data, indicating a slowdown in the recovery in the world’s second-largest economy. Bioplastics carbon fibre
However, oil demand from China and developing countries, combined with OPEC+ supply cuts, is likely to keep the market tight in the second half of the year despite a sluggish global economy, the head of the International Energy Agency (IEA) said.
Markets are also focusing on the release of U.S. Consumer Price Index data and a slew of economic reports from China later this week to ascertain demand.
The evolution of the nylon 6 thread production sector and its shift towards Asian countries
In recent decades, the nylon 6 thread production sector has undergone significant changes, with an evident trend towards a reduction of productions in the western regions in favor of Asian countries. This transformation has been driven by several factors, including increased global competitiveness, accessibility of resources and labor costs. In this article, we will explore the evolution of this sector and the reasons that have led to a significant change in the geography of production.Bioplastics carbon fibre
Nylon 6 thread is a widely used material in a variety of industrial applications, including textiles, packaging, footwear and automotive. Its popularity comes from its strength, durability and versatility. However, in recent years, manufacturers have faced increasing pressure to reduce production costs in order to remain competitive in the global market.
The global nylon 6 thread market has become increasingly competitive, with an increasing number of companies seeking to gain a competitive advantage through lower manufacturing costs. Asian countries, in particular, have been shown to have a significant advantage in terms of lower labor costs and accessible resources. Emerging economies such as China, India and Vietnam have developed manufacturing infrastructure and expertise that have made them attractive for investment by companies in the sector.
Accessibility to resources:
The production of nylon 6 thread requires access to a number of resources, including petroleum, chemical intermediates and energy. Asian countries often have greater availability of these resources, allowing companies to reduce procurement costs and increase their competitiveness. Bioplastics carbon fibre
Additionally, many Western companies have moved their manufacturing facilities to Asia to take advantage of proximity to sources of supply.
One of the most significant factors that prompted nylon 6 thread manufacturing companies to move their production to Asian countries is lower labor costs. Lower wages in Asian countries allow companies to significantly reduce their production costs, thereby increasing their profitability. This competitive advantage has been instrumental in the decision of many companies to move their production to Asia. Bioplastics carbon fibre
The reduction in nylon 6 yarn production in the western regions has had a significant impact on local economies. Many workers lost their jobs, and communities that depended on nylon 6 thread production faced economic and social challenges. However, this shift has also created opportunities for the development of new industries and sectors in Asian economies, promoting economic growth in those regions. Bioplastics carbon fibre
The strong reduction in the production of nylon 6 yarn in favor of Asian countries was determined by the need of companies to remain competitive on the global market. Global competitiveness, accessibility to resources and lower labor costs have been the main factors driving this transformation. While this has had negative impacts on Western economies, it has also created opportunities for growth and development in Asian economies. The evolution of the nylon 6 thread production sector represents an example of the dynamics taking place in economic globalization and the constant search for efficiency and competitiveness. Bioplastics carbon fibre
Compostable Plastics: Unlocking the Potential in the Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation
Plastic packaging waste has become one of the most pressing environmental challenges of our time. In the recently published European Commission’s Early Warning Report, 18 Member States are at risk of missing the 55% target on municipal waste reuse and recycling preparation. Regarding packaging waste, EU regulators are currently reviewing the EU legislation and are on track to give the block a new Packaging and Packaging Waste Regulation (PPWR). However, 10 Member States are at risk of missing the target of 65% recycling of packaging waste by 2025. Bioplastics carbon fibre
The overall objectives of the Regulations are:
- To prevent the generation of packaging waste: reduce it in quantity, restrict unnecessary packaging, and promote reusable and refillable packaging solutions.
- To make all packaging on the EU market recyclable in an economically viable way by 2030.
- To increase the use of recycled plastics in packaging through mandatory targets.
At TotalEnergies Corbion we believe that compostable plastics contribute to the objectives of the PPWR. Compostable plastics, like Luminy® PLA, are a type of biodegradable material designed to break down into natural elements when subjected to composting conditions. Compostable packaging has a clear advantage when plastic items are contaminated with food waste, as is often the case with food packaging and food service ware.Bioplastics carbon fibre
When plastics are contaminated with food, mechanical recycling of waste (food or packaging) is not viable. Conversely, when using compostable plastics, we can organically recycle both packaging and food waste. Many existing examples of plastic packaging cannot be redesigned to make them reusable. In contrast, the same design can be made with compostable plastics that can be efficiently composted.
To fully unlock the potential of compostable plastics, the PPWR needs to include specific enabling conditions:
- Allow compostable plastics in all food-related packaging. At TotalEnergies Corbion, we think that compostable plastics should be used for specific applications (i.e. tea bags, coffee capsules, fruit labels, contaminated food service ware, and bags which can be reused for biowaste collection). The PPWR should guarantee a level playing field with other packaging materials and allow the use of compostable plastics in all food-related packaging. Bioplastics carbon fibre
- Standardization and Certification. For over 20 years, the EN 13432 standard has ensured that compostable plastics are compatible with the composting process in facilities. While we are open to periodic revisions of the standard, our priority is to maintain its assurance of producing mature and stable compost as the final output.
- Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The PPWR should guarantee that the EPR fee paid by compostable packaging producers are then used for the collection, sorting and organic recycling of such material. A best practice has been implemented in Italy, where an EPR scheme for compostable plastic packaging (Biorepack) has been created.Bioplastics carbon fibre
Introducing the Ammonia Engine: China’s Latest Emission Reduction Revolution
China is at the forefront of finding innovative solutions to reduce CO2 emissions, and the latest breakthrough comes in the form of the ammonia engine. Not only does this engine promise to emit 90% less carbon dioxide than traditional petrol and diesel engines, but it also brings additional benefits to the table. Bioplastics carbon fibre
The revolutionary ammonia engine is the brainchild of Guangzhou Automobile Group (GAC), one of China’s leading car manufacturers. Ammonia, composed of nitrogen and hydrogen, can be produced from renewable sources such as wind and solar energy. This fuel has the potential to surpass traditional options, according to researchers working on the project.
Consider this practical example: a vehicle equipped with an ammonia engine undergoes combustion without emitting CO2; instead, it releases only water vapor and nitrogen. Moreover, ammonia boasts a higher energy density than hydrogen, making it easier to transport and store. This fuel choice would result in a significant 90% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Bioplastics carbon fibre
However, while the concept is clear, there are some less straightforward aspects to address. If cars were to run on ammonia in the future, the large-scale production process raises environmental concerns. It currently relies on substantial quantities of hydrocarbons and emits at least two tons of CO2 for every ton of ammonia produced. Additionally, ammonia possesses toxicity and contributes to the generation of fine dust and smog when released into the atmosphere, alongside other substances.
Moreover, the establishment of dedicated and well-sealed refueling stations, similar to hydrogen infrastructure, would be necessary. It’s worth noting that ammonia lacks carbon, an essential element for CO2 emissions, but it contains nitrogen oxides (NOx), which necessitate specific catalysts, as in the case of diesel engines. Bioplastics carbon fibre
GAC’s Ammonia Engine: Engineering Details
GAC’s ammonia engine was developed based on a two-liter engine, which underwent necessary modifications to adapt to the new power source. This engine has a power output of 120 kW, equivalent to 163 HP, and a maximum torque of 250 Nm. Notably, the engine can also run on a blend of ammonia and petrol when required.
Regarding the choice of ammonia as a fuel, GAC asserts that it represents the future due to its safety, cleanliness, and ecological superiority over biofuels and hydrogen. Additionally, GAC highlights the advantage of localized production, reducing dependency on imported oil. Bioplastics carbon fibre
The introduction of the ammonia engine by GAC showcases China’s commitment to revolutionizing emission reduction technologies. While challenges and considerations remain, this groundbreaking innovation holds promise for a greener future in the automotive industry.
ORLEN Invests in Bioplastics
ORLEN is steadfastly executing the largest petrochemical project in Europe in the last 20 years. The company has decided to scale up the expansion of the Olefins Complex at the Production Plant in Płock. This move is in response to the growing market demand for petrochemical products, which serve as the foundation for manufacturing everyday items, such as car parts and home appliances. The expansion of the Olefins Complex will result in approximately 650 new jobs. Importantly, the project will enable a 30% reduction in CO2 emissions per tonne of product and will position ORLEN as a leader in the European petrochemical industryBioplastics carbon fibre
‘Global trends suggest that the demand for high-margin petrochemical products will grow dynamically. By 2050, the value of the petrochemicals and base plastics market has the potential to double. Meanwhile, within the next decade, the refining of crude oil into traditional fuels will gradually decrease. We are carefully analysing these changes and intensifying our actions to secure the largest possible share in the petrochemical business and quickly increase revenue generated by this segment. Hence, we are broadening the scope of work on the expansion of the Olefins Complex.
We will modernize the entire existing infrastructure, making our complex the most advanced and eco-friendly in Europe. This approach will undoubtedly reinforce our position as a regional leader in petrochemical production, bolstering the competitiveness of our Group and the Polish economy,’ says Daniel Obajtek, CEO and President of the PKN ORLEN Management Board. Bioplastics carbon fibre
ORLEN plans to invest PLN 25 billion in the expansion of the Olefins Complex, with Polish subcontractors also taking part in the project. This amount is almost on par with the profit earned by the ORLEN Group in 2022.
Petrochemical products manufactured in the Olefins Complex will serve as the basis for more advanced plastics, used in the production of everyday items such as cleaning and hygiene products, medical items, as well as synthetic fibres for clothing or protective masks. They will also be used in car parts, home appliances, and electronic devices.
The expansion of the Olefins Complex and the increase in petrochemical production capacity will have a positive impact not only on the Group’s business but also on job creation and the financial situation of local authorities. Bioplastics carbon fibre
The project is estimated to increase employment within the Group by about 650 full-time positions. Additionally, ORLEN’s local tax payments to municipal budgets are expected to rise by an additional PLN 160 million annually. Furthermore, the increased availability of base petrochemicals will lay the groundwork for the development of the chemical industry in Poland and amplify positive effects on the economy.
The expanded scope of work will involve a thorough modernization of the existing infrastructure at the Production Plant in Płock. After modernization, it will be used for the manufacturing of olefins and for future development projects. The investment is a crucial element of the energy transition and will enable a 30% reduction in CO2 emissions per tonne of product. The construction of a modern Olefins Complex will extend the lifespan of the refining installations, for which petrochemical production will provide opportunities in the coming years.Bioplastics carbon fibre
The project will also capitalize on synergies from the merger between ORLEN and Grupa LOTOS The Gdansk plant will supply a significant volume of naphtha for olefin production. In turn, olefins will be one of the raw materials necessary for the production of LDPE polyethylene, which is used to manufacture films, bags, canisters, and food packaging. Last year, ORLEN took over part of the business associated with the production and sale of LDPE polyethylene, owned by Basell Orlen Polyolefins, in which it is a shareholder.
According to current plans, the implementation of the Olefins Complex will make a substantial contribution to enhancing the petrochemical potential of the ORLEN Group. The project will boost the production of base petrochemicals in Płock by more than 60 per cent and by over 30 per cent in the entire ORLEN Group, including the company’s operations in the Czech Republic and Lithuania. Upon its completion in 2027, ORLEN will boast one of the most advanced and efficient petrochemical plants in Europe, enabling the company to build a competitive advantage and strengthen its position as a regional leader in the petrochemical segment. Bioplastics carbon fibre
Teijin has achieved the ISCC+ certification for its Tenax carbon fibre and the precursor fibre, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), produced at its Mishima plant in Japan
This dual certification signifies Teijin’s ongoing commitment to the circular economy.
The PAN precursor fibre is created from sustainable acrylonitrile (AN), utilizing waste and byproducts from biomass sources or recycled materials. The production process follows the mass balance approach, which allows the blending of biomass-derived and petroleum-derived raw materials to form the end products.
Through verifiable tracking in the value chain, the materials are attributed proportionately to the final product.Bioplastics carbon fibre
The acrylonitrile produced sustainably retains the same molecular structure and physical properties as its petroleum-derived counterpart. Consequently, both the PAN precursor fibre and the Tenax carbon fibre made from it serve as drop-in alternatives, providing identical physical characteristics to fossil-based equivalents. Teijin anticipates commencing commercial production of these mass-balanced products in the first half of 2024.
Teijin also plans to pursue ISCC+ certification for its carbon fibre and related products manufactured in Europe, the United States, and Asia. This endeavor aims to expand the availability of these environmentally sustainable offerings.Bioplastics carbon fibre
Carbon fibre, renowned for its strength and lightweight nature, contributes to energy consumption reduction across various industries. In response to the demand for lower environmental impact products, Teijin has taken measures to decrease greenhouse gas emissions throughout its supply chains. The company now utilizes natural gas to power its manufacturing facilities and employs a lifecycle assessment (LCA) approach to calculate the environmental footprint of its carbon fibre and intermediate materials.
Bioplastics carbon fibre